Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Discourse Strategy Families > (P)review


Review and prereading strategies are used to identify the key structures and concepts in a text and use them to support improved text comprehension in reading, and in writing, to enable the writer to evaluate the effectiveness of the way a document is structured and developed. When used for comprehension, rereading and prereading support extraction of gist information about a text so as to provide an initial framework within which the details of the text can easily be fit. As a class of strategies that support evaluation, (p)review deals with such questions as the clarity and identifiability of key ideas, the extent to which a document is structured coherently (so that the reader's predictions are not frustrated and the relationships among the parts are easy to infer), the extent to which the structure and presentation are appropriate for the particular type of text being produced, whether the text presents appropriate and appropriately elaborated content, and whether incorporated materials are handled clearly and appropriately. The hypothesized development of these skills is presented in Development Table 28.

(P)review as described here supports evaluation of overall structure and organization, and thus it is one of a number of discourse strategy types that supports Writing Standard 5 from the Common Core State Standards.

Literature Note - (P)review

Development Table 28. Hypothesized Development of (P)review Skills

Level
Interpretation
Deliberation
Expression
Preliminary
(oral to sentence)
Can skim, scan, or preread a text to find main ideas and major subpoints and themes.
Can read a text to identify particular points within it that may or may not provide questionable information (quality); to identify particular points within it that may be too vague, too general, far too specific, or otherwise not appropriately developed (quantity); to identify particular statements that may be phrased in a manner too obscure or too simplistically for the function they appear to fulfill in context (manner); and to identify particular points whose relevance and function within the overall structure of a text may not be clear (relevance).
Can apply search and verification strategies that target specific statements for verification and trigger some form of fact-checking process (quality), target specific statements for further development and trigger some form of information-gathering (quantity), and target statements that seem obscure or simplistic and trigger inference processes to determine what the intended meaning probably was (manner).
Can annotate or otherwise respond to a text by addressing the factual adequacy of specific facts and statements (quality), addressing the generality or specificity of the information it contains (quantity), addressing the clarity of the information it contains (manner), andaddressing the relevance of specific facts and statements
Foundational
(sentence to paragraph)
Can apply skimming, scanning, and prereading strategies that exploit markers of text macrostructure such as headings to build a mental model of how a text is organized.
Can read a text to identify specific blocks or sections whose relevance or function within the larger text is not explicitly indicated.
Can apply reintegration strategies that identify specific blocks whose relevance or function is not clear and trigger inference processes to determine how (or whether) the information in that block is relevant to the central purpose of the text.
Can annotate or otherwise respond to a text by focusing attention on specific blocks or sections and requesting clarification of their relevance or function within the larger text.
Basic
(paragraph to text)
Can apply skimming, scanning, or prereading strategies to infer macrostructure where relationships among parts of the text are not explicitly cued and must be inferred from transitional language between segments.
Can read a text critically to determine the extent to which the general organizational principles on which the text is constructed are directly and formally expressed.
Can apply restructuring strategies that identify organizational problems in a text and trigger inferential processes to reevaluate what organizing pattern would actually provide the clearest method for arranging or rearranging textual content.
Can annotate or otherwise respond to a text by focusing attention on its organization and requesting clarification of the overall outline.
Intermediate
(text to context)
Can apply skimming, scanning, and prereading strategies to identify the attitude and stance of the author toward the topic.
Can read a text critically to determine the slant and tone created by specific stylistic, grammatical, and lexical choices.
Can apply stylistic reevaluation strategies that identify unusual stylistic features in a text and trigger social reasoning processes to reevaluate how well they support the text's rhetorical purpose and define how suitable they are for the target audience.
Can annotate or otherwise respond to a text by focusing attention on specific features that create particular stylistic effects and requesting information on the purpose of these features.
Advanced
(text and context to discourse)
Can apply skimming, scanning, and prereading strategies that are sensitive to the structural norms of particular genres and use those structural patterns efficiently to extract the gist of a text and its place in the larger discourse.
Can read a text critically to determine how closely it conforms to the normal structural patterns of its genre.
Can apply rhetorical reevaluation strategies that identify deviations from genre structure norms and trigger social reasoning processes to reevaluate how well these deviations support the text's rhetorical purpose.
Can annotate or otherwise respond to a text by focusing attention on structural features that deviate from genre norms and requesting information on the purpose for these variations.



Home | About CBAL | Acknowledgments | Contact Us

© 2012 Educational Testing Service. The Common Core State Standards © copyright 2010 National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.

All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.