Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Print Strategy Families > Analogical Reasoning (Phonology-Morphology)


Analogical reasoning is critical in learning to read and spell. Phonetic spelling requires recognition of phonological regularities. Even when spelling is not phonologically regular, English spelling preserves common spelling patterns across word families (groups of morphologically related words). Analogical strategies for guessing spelling and pronunciation are natural enough, and if systematically strengthened, can improve vocabulary significantly by supporting vocabulary learning strategies as well as spelling strategies. The hypothesized development of these skills is presented in Development Table 41.

This cluster of abilities is critically relevant to Reading Foundational Standard 3 and Language Standards 4, 5, and 6 from the Common Core State Standards, to mention the most salient.

Literature Note - Analogy-Morphology

Development Table 41. Hypothesized Development of Analogical Skills for Phonology and Morphology

Level
Interpretation
Deliberation
Expression
Preliminary
(oral)
Uses analogical strategies to pronounce unknown words by pronouncing them like a known word with a one-letter/one sound difference.
Understands and applies the phonemic principle (Change one sound, change the meaning).
Engages in word play manipulating similar-sounding words; guesses spellings by analogy with phonetically similar words.
Foundational
(syllable)
Overrides any tendency to guess word pronunciations based on partial letter sequences, by paying attention to common prefixes and suffixes.
Understands and applies the inflection principle (the same words have regular variations with consistent changes in meaning).
Consistently spells inflectional variants of words correctly, following regular spelling patterns.
Basic
(word)
Uses common roots, prefixes, and suffixes to pronounce unfamiliar words correctly and guess their probable meaning.
Understands and applies the derivation principle (new words can be formed from old words following predictable patterns).
Understands and applies the meanings of common prefixes and suffixes.
Understands and applies the principle that the meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of a compound word can be derived from the meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of its parts.
Can generate appropriate derivative forms of words as needed while writing, using regular prefixes and suffixes.
Can spell derived words correctly by spelling the root word(s) and the affix correctly.
Intermediate
(Latinate words)
Can guess the meaning and pronunciation of unfamiliar Latinate vocabulary by analogy with other words in the same family.
Can predict the meaning and pronunciation of unfamiliar Latinate vocabulary by combining the meanings of prefixes, suffixes and roots.
Understands and applies complex derivational patterns involving Latin and Greek roots.
Applies vocabulary devolpment strategies that involve learning the meanings of a wide variety of Latin and Greek roots, prefixes, and suffixes, and linking them to word families.
Can generate appropriate derivative forms of Latinate words as needed while writing, using appropriate Greek and Latin suffixes and prefixes.
Can spell Latinate words correctly by inferring their component prefixes, suffixes, and roots.
Advanced
(borrowed words)
Can predict the meanings and pronunciations of derived words borrowed from another language using that language’s typical prefixes and suffixes.
Understands and applies derivational and grammatical patterns restricted to borrowings from a particular language.
Can spell derived words borrowed from another language correctly, using knowledge of that language’s typical prefixes and suffixes.


Home | About CBAL | Acknowledgments | Contact Us

© 2012 Educational Testing Service. The Common Core State Standards © copyright 2010 National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.

All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.