Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Discourse Strategy Families > Incorporation


Incorporation strategies are strategies for reusing passages and/or content from another text as part of a document one is writing. Incorporation can range from use of isolated details to support a point up to embedding an entire text (or a paraphrase or summary of the same) within a larger document. Incorporation strategies thus require an understanding of the principles of citation, quotation, and paraphrase, an understanding of genre conventions for particular types of embedded text (such as use of present tense in synopses and summaries attributing ideas to authors), and the skills that enable a skilled writer to know when to use each type of incorporation, depending on the role that the incorporated text plays in their own writing. The hypothesized development of these skills is presented in Development Table 27.

This skill supports the plagiarism elements in Writing Standard 8 from the Common Core State Standards, though it can be met in full only at the conceptual level.

Literature Note - Incorporation

Development Table 27. Hypothesized Development of Incorporation Skills

Level
Interpretation
Deliberation
Expression
Preliminary
(oral to sentence)
Can understand the idea of a source.
Can answer questions by finding and scanning or questioning sources that may possess the desired information.
Can identify sources for information when asked.
Foundational
(sentence to paragraph)
Can interpret information by taking into account what is known about the source from which it was drawn.
Can use note-taking strategies to record information from sources for later rereading.
Can categorize and order notes to arrange material for presentation.
Basic
(paragraph to text)
Can evaluate information by evaluating the reliability of its source(s).
Can use bibliographic strategies to locate sources, maintain lists of sources, and keep track of quotations, paraphrases, personal responses, and opinions about specific points in source texts.
Can clearly indicate the provenance of information in the text, while incorporating it appropriately using quotation, summary, and paraphrase as appropriate.
Intermediate
(text to context)
Can evaluate sources for the usefulness and relevance of the information they contain.
Can use interpretive note-taking strategies to contextualize source information.
Can incorporate information drawn from source texts so that it fully fits into and supports one's own ideas and purposes.
Advanced
(text and context to discourse)
Can evaluate sources in light of their place in a disciplinary matrix (authoritativeness of journals, prestige of authors, control of the relevant literature, etc.).
Can use citation-tracking strategies to uncover literatures and recognize important and seminal sources.
Can contextualize information presented to make its significance clear in its disciplinary context.




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