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Language Standard 1 - Command of Standard English:
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

This standard corresponds primarily to the following parts of the CBALTM competency model:

Some students must meet the standard by learning to apply the following skill:

Standards Table L1. Mapping Language Standard 1 to the Competency Model

Grade Level
Skills

Kindergarten
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
  • Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
  • Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
  • Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
  • Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
  • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:


1st Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
  • Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
  • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
  • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).
  • Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
  • Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  • Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
  • Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
  • Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
  • Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:

2nd Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
  • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
  • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
  • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
  • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
  • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
The skills also involve some elements of the following:

3rd Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
  • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
  • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
  • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
  • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
  • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
  • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
  • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
  • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
They also involve some aspects of the following element:

4th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
  • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
  • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
  • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
  • Form and use prepositional phrases.
  • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
They also involve some aspects of the following element:
5th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
  • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
  • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
  • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
They also involve some aspects of the following element:
6th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
  • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
  • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
  • Recognize variations from Standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
They also involve some aspects of the following element:
7th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
  • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
  • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
  • These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Sentence Combining (Approaching Intermediate).
They also involve some aspects of the following element:
8th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
  • Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
  • Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
They also involve some aspects of the following element:
9th-10th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use parallel structure.
  • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
11th-12th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
  • Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:




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