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Language Standard 2 - Command of Conventional Spelling, Punctuation, and Mechanics:
Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.


Students who meet this standard must apply spelling strategies and prescriptive strategies and probably know how to proofread; thus they are likely to employ the following strategy types of the competency model:

Standards Table L2. Mapping Language Standard 2 to the Competency Model

Grade level
Skills

Kindergarten
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
  • Recognize and name end punctuation.
  • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
  • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Preliminary)—for the first three skills listed above.
  • Memorization (Preliminary)—for the third skill listed above.
  • Sound-Out (Preliminary)—for the fourth skill listed above.

1st Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Capitalize dates and names of people.
  • Use end punctuation for sentences.
  • Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
  • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
  • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Foundational)—for all five of the skills listed above.
  • Memorization (Foundational)—for the fourth skill listed above.
  • Sound Out (Foundational)—for the fifth skill listed above.

2nd Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
  • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
  • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
  • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil).
  • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Basic)—for the first four skills listed above.
  • Analogy (Preliminary)—for the fourth skill listed above.
  • Look-Up (Basic)—for the fifth skill listed above.

3rd Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
  • Use commas in addresses.
  • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
  • Form and use possessives.
  • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
  • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
  • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Expressive, Approaching Basic)—for the first six skills listed above.
  • Prescription (Preliminary)—for the sixth skill listed above.
  • Prescription (Foundational)—for the first four skills listed above.
  • Memorization (Basic)—for the fif the skill listed above.
  • Analogy (Basic)—for the sixth skill listed above.
  • Look-Up (Basic)—for the seventh skill listed above.

4th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use correct capitalization.
  • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
  • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Expressive, Approaching Basic)—for the first three skills listed above.
  • Prescription (Foundational)—for all four skills listed above.
  • Look-Up (Basic)—for the fourth skill listed above.

5th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
  • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
  • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you.), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
  • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Expressive, Approaching Basic)—for all five skills listed above.
  • Prescription (Expressive, Foundational)—for all five skills listed above.
  • Look-Up (Basic)—for the fifth skill listed above.

6th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
  • Spell correctly.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Expressive, Basic)—for both of the skills listed above.
  • Prescription (Basic)—for the first of the skills listed above.
7th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie. but not He wore an old[,] green shirt.).
  • Spell correctly.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Basic)—for the second skill listed above.
  • Print Cues (Expressive, Approaching Intermediate)—for the first skill listed above.
  • Prescription (Basic)—for the first skill listed above.
8th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
  • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
  • Spell correctly.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Basic)—for the third skill listed above.
  • Print Cues (Expressive, Intermediate)—for both skills listed above.
  • Prescription (Intermediate)—for both skills listed above.
9th-10th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
  • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • Spell correctly.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Prescription (Intermediate)—for the first skill listed above.
  • Print Cues (Basic)—for both skills listed above.
11th-12th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Observe hyphenation conventions.
  • Spell correctly.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
  • Print Cues (Basic)—for the second skill listed above.
  • Print Cues (Expressive, Advanced)—for the first skill listed above.
  • Prescription (Advanced)—for the first skill listed above.





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