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Language Standards 4, 5, and 6 - Command of Vocabulary:

Standard 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

Standard 5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

Standard 6. Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.


Students who meet these standards are probably making effective use of the following strategy type from the competency model:

Standards Table L4-5-6. Mapping Language Standards 4, 5, and 6 to the Competency Model

Grade level
Skills
Kindergarten
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
  • Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
  • Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  • Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
  • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
1st Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
  • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
  • Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  • Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
  • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, and being read to, in responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
2nd Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
  • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
  • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
  • Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
  • Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, and being read to in responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
3rd Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on Grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat).
  • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
  • Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
  • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful).
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
4th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
  • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  • Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
5th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
  • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
6th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
7th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
8th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on Grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
9th-10th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
  • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 5 include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 6 include the following:
  • Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:
11th-12th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to Standard 4 include the following:
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
  • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
These skills correspond to the following aspects of the competency model:





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