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The skills covered under the heading of (p)reviewing actually cover a significant range, since they deal with practically every strategic use of reading that focuses on text macrostructure and gist content. They are grouped together because there is good reason to think that simpler forms of these skills (e.g., those involved in prereading strategies) in fact support more complex, evaluative applications (e.g., the ability to evaluate text structure and trigger revision strategies as a result).

At the simplest level, reading can be treated as a recursive process. Rereading is a well-known strategy for improving text comprehension (Dowhower, 1987, 1994; Samuels, 1979; Therien, 2004). More generally, knowledge of text structure, combined with activation of relevant knowledge structures, supports prereading strategies that focus on inferring text macrostructure and key points (Dole, Valencia, Greer, & Wardrop, 1991; Langer, 1981; Moore, Readance, & Rickelman, 1989; Nelson, Stage, Epstein, & Peirce, 2005; O'Reilly, Best, & McNamara, 2005; Spires & Donley, 1998).

And yet those skills derive their very efficiency from an implicit grasp of the features that make text relatively comprehensible and which make their organization easy to reconstruct. Where such skills fail, it is possible, provided that some degree of self-monitoring of comprehension is possible, to build up the ability to detect the kinds of features that should trigger revision during the writing process. Many of the kinds of features that appear responsible for triggering of revision in skilled writers are of this type (Beal, 1996; Flower, Hayes, Carey, Schriver, & Stratman, 1986; Hayes, 2004; Kellogg, 2008; Myhill, 2007).

Beal, C. R. (1996). The role of comprehension monitoring in children's revision. Educational Psychology Review 8(3), 219-238.

Dole, J. A., Valencia, S. W., Greer, E. A., & Wardrop, J. L. (1991). Effects of two types of prereading instruction on the comprehension of narrative and expository text. Reading Research Quarterly 26(2), 142-159.

Dowhower, S. L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers' fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly 22(4), 389-406.

Dowhower, S. L. (1994). Repeated reading revisited: Research into practice. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 10, 343–358.

Flower, L., Hayes, J. R., Carey, L., Schriver, K., & Stratman, J. (1986). Detection, diagnosis, and the strategies of revision. College Composition and Communication 37(1), 16-55.

Hayes, J. R. (2004). What triggers revision? In L. Allal, L. Chanquoy, & P. Largy (Eds.), Cognition and instructional processes (Vol. 13, pp. 9-20). New York, NY: Kluwer.

Kellogg, R. T. (2008). Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), 1-26.

Langer, J. A. (1981). From theory to practice: A prereading plan. Journal of Reading 25(2), 152-156.

Myhill, D., & Jones, S. (2007). More than just error correction: Students' perspectives on their revision processs during writing. Written Communication, 24(4), 323-343.

Moore, D. W., Readence, J. E., & Rickelman, R. J. (1989). Prereading activities for content area reading and learning. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Nelson, J. R., Stage, S. A., Epstein, M. H., & Pierce, C. D. (2005). Effects of a prereading intervention on the literacy and social skills of children. Exceptional Children 72(1), 29.

O’Reilly, T., Best, R., & McNamara, D. S. (2004). Self-explanation reading training: Effects for low-knowledge readers. In K. Forbus, D. Gentner, & T. Regier (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1053–1058). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher 50(5), 376-381.

Spires, H. A., & Donley, J. (1998). Prior knowledge activation: Inducing engagement with informational texts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 249-260.

Therien, W. J. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 252.

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