Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Discourse Strategy Families > Incorporation > Literature Note - Incorporation

Incorporation, as we define it, constitutes the ability to incorporate texts from other writers in one's own writing. As such, it goes beyond specific abilities such as paraphrasing or summarizing to include all of the skills needed to integrate sources into one's own writing, including attribution, citation, and the like.

Suggested Reading
Britt, M. A., Wiemer-Hastings, P., Larson, A. A., & Perfetti, C. A. (2004). Using intelligent feedback to improve sourcing and integration in students' essays. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 14, 359-374.

Britt, M. A., & Aglinskas, C. (2002). Improving student’s ability to use source information. Cognition and Instruction, 20(40), 485–522.

Britt, M. A., Perfetti, C. A., Sandak, R., & Rouet, J.-F. (1999). Content integration and source separation in learning from multiple texts. In S. R. Goldman, A. C. Graesser, & P. van den Broek (Eds.), Narrative comprehension, causality, and coherence: Essays in honor of Tom Trabasso (pp. 209-233). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hyland, K. (1999). Academic attribution: citation and the construction of disciplinary knowledge. Applied Linguistics 20(3), 341-367.

Rouet, J.-F. (2006). The skills of document use: From text comprehension to web-based learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Home | About CBAL | Acknowledgments | Contact Us

© 2012 Educational Testing Service. The Common Core State Standards © copyright 2010 National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.

All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.