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The three-way distinction drawn here follows a view advanced in writing cognition theory, which proposes that reflective or deliberative processes are a fundamental category. This view is presented in more recent work by Hayes and Nash (1996), which removes external distinctions based upon task (e.g., the distinction in writing between initial draft and editing) in favor of an analysis that assumes three basic cognitive processes: text interpretation, text production, and reflection. This need not deny the psychological reality of the kinds of activities assumed in a more fine-grained model, such as that presented by Hayes and Flower (1980). Rather, it presents the distinction among receptive, expressive, and reflective processes as the fundamental process types upon which more specialized processes are built. It is worth noting that the three-way distinction drawn here bears important similarities to the distinction in sociocultural theories between externalization, internalization, and co-action (Englert, Mariage, & Dunsmore, 2006, p. 55). Reflective processes may not only involve both receptive and expressive elements, but may focus upon activities distributed across persons, as in peer review or copyediting before publication.

Englert, C. S., Mariage, T. V., & Dunsmore, K. (2006). Tenets of sociocultural theory in writing instruction research. In C. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 208-221). New York, NY, England: Guilford Press.

Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. In L. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 3-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hayes, J. R., & Nash, J. G. (1996). On the nature of planning in writing. In C. M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences, and applications (pp. 29-55). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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