Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Discourse Strategy Families > Outlining > Literature Note - Outlining and Graphic Organizers

Outlining strategies, as we define them, are intended to include a variety of metacognitive strategies for explicitly representing text macrostructure. There is strong evidence that using such strategies improves reading comprehension (Alvermann, 1981; Alvermann & Boothby, 1986; Armbruster, Anderson, & Meyer, 1991; Bean, Singer, & Frazee, 1986; Chmielewski & Dansereau, 1998; Griffin, Malone, & Kammenui, 1995; Guri-Rozenblit, 1988; Kim, Vaugh, Wanzek, & Wei, 2004; Lambiotte & Dansereau, 1992; Robinson & Kiewra, 1995; Sturm & Rankin-Erickson, 2002) and supports writers during revision and planning (Lee, 2007; Kellogg, 1987). Whether used as tools for comprehension, indexes for searching, or as advance organizers, outlines are thought to improve processing effectiveness by offloading much of the cognitive load needed to handle complex text macrostructure (Glover, Bullock & Dietzer, 1990; Kellogg, 1987; Kim et al., 2004; Lee, 2007).

Alvermann, D. E. (1981). The compensatory effect of graphic organizers on descriptive text. Journal of Educational Research, 75, 44-48.

Alvermann, D. E., & Boothby, P. R. (1986). Children’s transfer of graphic organizer instruction. Reading Psychology, 7(2), 87-100.

Armbruster, B. B., Anderson, T. H., & Meyer, J. L. (1991). Improving content-area reading using instructional graphics. Reading Research Quarterly, 26(4), 394-416.

Bean, T. W., Singer, H., & Frazee, C. (1986) The effect of metacognitive instruction in outlining and graphic organizer construction on students' comprehension in a tenth-grade world history class. Journal of Reading Behavior, 18, 153-169

Chmielewski, T. L., & Dansereau, D. F. (1998). Enhancing the recall of text: knowledge mapping training promotes implicit transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(3), 407-413.

Glover, J. A., Bullock, R. G., & Dietzer, M. L. (1990). Advance organizers: Delay hypotheses. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(2), 291-297.

Griffin, C. C., Malone, L. D. & Kammenui, E. J. (1995). Effects of graphic organizer instruction on fifth grade students. Journal of Educational Research, 89(2), 98-107.

Guri-Rozenblit, S. (1988). Impact of diagrams on recalling sequential elements in expository texts. Reading Psychology: an International Journal, 9, 121-139.

Kellogg, R. R. (1987). Writing performance: Effects of cognitive strategies. Written Communication 4(3), 269-298.

Kim, A., Vaugh, S., Wanzek, J., & Wei, S. (2004). Graphic organizers and their effects on the reading comprehension of students with LD: A synthesis of research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(2), 105-118.

Lambiotte, J. G., & Dansereau, D. F. (1992). Effects of knowledge maps and prior knowledge on recall of science lecture content. Journal of Experimental Education, 60, 189-201.

Lee, C. C. (2007, Decemb er). Graphic organisers as scaffolding for students’ revision in the pre-writing stage. Paper presented at the ICT: Providing Choices for Learners and Learning conference, Singapore. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/lee-cc.pdf

Robinson, D. H., & Kiewra, K. A. (1995). Visual argument: graphic organizers are superior to outlines in improving learning from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 455-467.

Sturm, J. M., & Rankin-Erickson, J. L. (2002). Effects of hand-drawn and computer-generated concept mapping on the expository writing of middle school students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice 17(2) 124–139.

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