Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Discourse Strategy Families > Planning > Literature Note - Planning

Planning is one of the processes that takes place under nearly all circumstances when people write. Under conditions of low cognitive demand, planning and text production are often interleaved, and planning is marked by pauses at key junctures in the discourse (Flower & Hayes, 1981; Flower, Schriver, Carey, Haas, & Hayes, 1992; Matsuhashi, 1981; Wengelin, 2006). However, since the demands of planning often conflict with the processing demands of text production, planning strategies separate the two, and provide various supports for the complexities of the planning process, which may include such things as outlining, annotation, and the like (Alamargot & Chanquoy, 2001; Berninger, Whitaker, Feng, Swanson, & Abbott, 1996; Coirier, Andriessen, & Chanquoy, 1999; Galbraith, 1999; Galbraith & Torrance, 1999; Hayes & Nash, 1996). Considerable evidence indicates that explicit instruction in planning strategies improves writing quality (De La Paz & Graham, 1997a,1997b; Graham & Harris, 1989; Graham, MacArthur, Graham, & Fitzgerald, 2006; MacArthur, Harris, & Graham, 1994).

Alamargot, D., & Chanquoy, L. (2001). Planning process. In G. Rijlaarsdam, D. Alamargot, & L. Chanquoy (Eds.), Through the models of writing (Vol. 9, pp. 33-64). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Berninger, V., Whitaker, D., Feng, Y., Swanson, H. L., & Abbott, R. D. (1996). Assessment of planning, translating, and revising in junior high writers. Journal of School Psychology, 34(1), 23-52.

Coirier, P., Andriessen, J. E. B., & Chanquoy, L. (1999). From planning to translating: The specificity of argumentative writing. In P. Coirier & J. Andriessen (Eds.), Foundations of argumentative text processing (pp. 1–28). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.

De La Paz, S., & Graham, S. (1997a). Effects of dictation and advanced planning instruction on the composing of students with writing and learning problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(2), 203-222.

De La Paz, S., & Graham, S. (1997b). Strategy instruction in planning: Effects on the writing performance and behavior of students with learning difficulties. Exceptional Children, 63(2), 167-181.

Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). The pregnant pause: An inquiry into the nature of planning. Research in the Teaching of English,15(3), 229-243.

Flower, L., Schriver, K. A., Carey, L., Haas, C., & Hayes, J. R. (1992). Planning in writing: The cognition of a constructive process. In S. P. Witte, N. Nakadate, & R. D. Cherry (Eds.), A rhetoric of doing: Essays in honor of James L. Kinneavy (pp. 181-243). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Galbraith, D. (1999). Writing as a knowledge-constituting process. In M. Torrance & D. Galbraith (Eds.), Knowing what to write: Conceptual processes in text production (pp. 137-157). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.

Galbraith, D., & Torrance, M. (1999). Conceptual processes in writing: from problem solving to text production. In M. Torrance & D. Galbraith (Eds.), Knowing what to write: Conceptual processes in text production (pp. 1-12). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1989). Components analysis of cognitive strategy instruction: Effects on learning disabled students' compositions and self-efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 353-361.

Graham, S., MacArthur, C. A., Graham, S., & Fitzgerald, J. (2006). Strategy instruction and the teaching of writing: A meta-analysis. In C. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research. (pp. 187-207): New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hayes, J. R., & Nash, J. G. (1996). On the nature of planning in writing. In C. M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences, and applications (pp. 29-55). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

MacArthur, C. A., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1994). Improving students' planning processes through cognitive strategy instruction. Advances in Cognition and Educational Practice, 2, 173-198.

Matsuhashi, A. (1981). Pausing and planning: The tempo of written discourse production. Research in the Teaching of English, 15(2), 113-134.

Wengelin, A. (2006). Examining pauses in writing: Theory, methods and empirical data. In K. P. H.Sullivan & E. Lindgren (Eds.), Computer keystroke logging: Methods and applications (pp. 107-130). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

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