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Print processing skills represent text in formal, phonological or orthographic terms. They require phonological awareness, knowledge of orthography, mastery of prescriptive grammar rules, and control of typographical conventions. Mastery of print processing presupposes code-switching abilities (since most written genres require Standard English). For reading, print processing skills include decoding (knowledge of sight-to-sound correspondences), orthographic conventions, and word recognition (Berninger, Abbott, Billingsley, & Nagy, 2001; Perfetti, 1985; Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Rieben & Perfetti, 1991; Templeton & Morris, 2001); along with knowledge of how printed text (along with print cues like punctuation and italics) are parsed to approximate speech equivalents (Kuhn, Schwanenflugel, & Meisinger, 2010). For writing, print processing skills include spelling and word recall, knowledge of grammatical and mechanical conventions, and the like, along with the motor skills supporting handwriting and typing—roughly equivalent to what Graham and Harris (2000) refer to as transcription skills.

Berninger, V. W., Abbott, R. D., Billingsley, F., & Nagy, W. (2001). Processes underlying timing and fluency of reading: Efficiency, automaticity, coordination and morphological awareness. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, dysfluency, and the brain (pp. 384-414). Baltimore, MD: York Press.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2000). The role of self-regulation and transcription skills in writing and writing development. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 3-12.

Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Meisinger, E. B. (2010, April/May/June). Review of research: Aligning theory and assessment of reading fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230–251

Perfetti, C. A. (1985). Reading ability. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Perfetti, C. A., & Hart, L. (2002). The lexical quality hypothesis. In L. Verhoeven, C. Elbro, & P. Reitsma (Eds.), Precursors of functional literacy (pp. 189-213). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.

Rieben, L., & Perfetti, C. A. (1991). Learning to read: Basic research and its implications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Templeton, S., & Morris, D. (2001, October). Reconceptualizing spelling development and instruction. Reading Online, 5(3). Retrieved from

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