Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Print Strategy Families > Analogical Reasoning (Phonology-Morphology) > Literature Note - Analogy-Morphology


Analogical processing of linguistic units—in particular, of morphological form—plays a fundamental role in orthographic knowledge (and in inferring the meanings of unknown words). The references below are far from exhaustive but give a good entree into the subject.


Suggested Reading
Anglin, J. M. (1993). Vocabulary development: A morphological analysis. Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Development, 58(10, Serial No. 238).

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Billingsley, F., & Nagy, W. (2001). Processes underlying timing and fluency: Efficiency, automaticity, coordination, and morphological awareness. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, fluency, and the brain (pp. 383–414). Baltimore, MD: York Press.

Carlisle, J. F. (2000). Awareness of the structure and meaning of morphologically complex words: Impact on reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 169–190.

Carlisle, J. F. (2003). Morphology matters in learning to read: A commentary. Reading Psychology, 24, 291–322.

Carlisle, J. F. (2004). Morphological processes that influence learning to read. In A. Stone, E. Silliman, B. Ehren, & K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (pp. 318–339). New York, nY: Guilford Press.

Henry, M. K. (1988). Beyond phonics: Integrated decoding and spelling instruction based on word origin and structure. Annals of Dyslexia, 38, 259–275.

Henry, M. K. (1989). Children’s word structure knowledge: Implications for decoding and spelling instruction. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2, 135–152.

Henry, M. K. (1993). Morphological structure: Latin and Greek roots and affixes as upper grade code strategies. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 227–241.

Mahony, D., Singson, M., & Mann, V. (2000). Reading ability and sensitivity to morphological relations. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 191–218.

Nagy, W. E., Anderson, R., Schommer, M., Scott, J., & Stallman, A. (1989). Morphological families in the internal lexicon. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 262–282.

Nagy, W. E., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Vaughan, K., & Vermeulen, K. (2003). Relationship of morphology and other language skills to literacy skills in at-risk second-grade readers and at-risk fourth-grade writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 730–742.

Nagy, W., Diakidoy, I., & Anderson, R. (1993). The acquisition of morphology: Learning the contribution of suffixes to the meaning of derivatives. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25, 155–170.

Nagy, W. E., & Scott, J. (1990). Word schemas: Expectations about the form and meaning of new words. Cognition and Instruction, 7, 105–127.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P., & Bindman, M. (1997). Morphological spelling strategies: Developmental stages and processes. Developmental Psychology, 33, 637–649.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P., & Olsson, J. (2003). Learning morphological and phonological spelling rules: An intervention study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7, 289–307.

Singson, M., Mahony, D., & Mann, V. (2000). The relation between reading ability and morphological skills: Evidence from derivational suffixes. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 219–252.

Tyler, A., & Nagy, W. (1989). The acquisition of English derivational morphology. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 649–667.

Tyler, A., & Nagy, W. (1990). Use of derivational morphology during reading. Cognition, 36, 17–34.

Venezky, R. L. (1970). The structure of English orthography. The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton.

Venezky, R. L. (1999). The American way of spelling: The structure and origins of American English orthography. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

White, T., Power, M., & White, S. (1989). Morphological analysis: Implications for teaching and understanding vocabulary growth. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 283–304.





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