Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Verbal Strategy Families > Verbal Expression > Literature Note - Verbal Expression


What we are terming verbal expression is, roughly, the ability to develop topics by putting ideas into words. This ability is generally associated with the development of linguistic abilities, for example, complexity and variety of sentences (Loban, 1976), and with general fluency in text production, as long as that fluency is appropriate for the specific text type (Beers & Nagy, 2009). Verbal fluency forms part of a general tradeoff between automatization and strategic processing: fluency in transcription and sentence-phrasing skills frees up cognitive resources for idea-generation and rhetorical problem solving; conversely, difficulties in verbal expression will reduce resources for idea generation, resulting in even less fluency of production than one might otherwise expect (Chenowyth & Hayes, 2001; Hayes & Berninger, 2009; McCutchen, 1988, 1996; McCutchen, Covill, Hoyne, & Mildes, 1994).

References
Beers, S. F., & Nagy, W. E. (2009). Syntactic complexity as a predictor of adolescent writing quality: Which measures? Which genre? Reading and Writing, 22(2), 185-200.

Chenowyth, N. A., & Hayes, J. R. (2001). Fluency in writing: Generating text in L1 and L2. Written Communication 18(1), 80-98.

Hayes, J. R., & Berninger, V. W. (2009). Relationships between idea generation and transcriptions: How the act of writing shapes what children write. In C. Bazerman, R. Krut, K. Lunsford, S. McLeod, S. Null, P. Rogers, & A. Stansell (Eds.), Traditions of writing research (pp. 166-180). New York, NY: Routledge.

Loban, W. (1976). Language development: Kindergarten through grade twelve (NCTE Committee on Research Report No. 18). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

McCutchen, D. (1988). Functional automaticity in children's writing: A problem of metacognitive control. Written Communication 5(3), 306-324.

McCutchen, D. (1996). A capacity theory of writing: Working memory in composition. Educational Psychology Review, 8(3), 299-325.

McCutchen, D., Covill, A., Hoyne, S. H., & Mildes, K. (1994). Individual differences in writing: Implications of translating fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 256-266.




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