Home > Strategies and Skill Development > Print Strategy Families > Memorization


Memorization strategies are strategies for memorizing which written forms are appropriate for any given word, and more generally, which written forms are appropriate in specific linguistic contexts. While associations can be acquired without memorization, as a result of the constant exposure that can come from immersion in reading, direct memorization strategies typically play an important role in acquiring fluent print skills. The hypothesized development of these skills is presented in Development Table 40.

These strategies, and the skills they support, are part of what children must master if they are to meet Language Standard 2 from the Common Core State Standards.

Literature Note - Memorization (Sight Reading)

Development Table 40. Hypothesized Development of Memorization Skills

Level
Interpretation
Deliberation
Expression
Preliminary
(oral)
Can recite the most common sounds (long, short) for any given vowel.
Can recite the primary sounds for any given consonant.
Uses memorization strategies to master phoneme-letter correspondences.
Given a sound, can produce the most common letter that represents that sound.
Foundational
(syllable)
Can recite the most common sounds for vowel teams and consonant digraphs.
Can pronounce common words correctly by recognizing the character sequence associated with them.
Can pronounce words correctly by recognizing the spelling group to which they belong.
Uses memorization strategies to master phoneme-grapheme correspondences for common vowel teams and consonant digraphs.
Uses memorization strategies to recall the sound-spelling correspondences for common words.
Uses memorization strategies to remember groups of words that use the same sound-spelling correspondences.
Given a sound, can produce alternate possible spellings for that sound, using single letters, vowel teams, and digraphs.
Can spell common words correctly by remembering the spelling that corresponds to them.
Can spell words correctly by remembering the spelling group to which they belong.
Basic
(word)
Can pronounce words correctly by recognizing and pronouncing the prefixes, affixes, and roots they contain.
Uses memorization strategies to master the spelling and pronunciation of frequent prefixes, suffixes, and roots.
Can guess spellings of words by recognizing and spelling their component prefixes, affixes, and roots.
Intermediate
(Latinate words)
Can pronounce Latinate words using the spelling/sound correspondences characteristic for academic, multisyllabic vocabulary.
Uses memorization strategies to learn the spelling and pronunciation of Greek and Latin prefixes, affixes, and roots.
Can spell Latinate words with correct spelling of Greek and Latin prefixes, affixes and roots.
Advanced
(borrowings)
Recognize what language a word is probably borrowed from and pronounce it accordingly.
Uses memorization strategies to remember unusual spelling/sound correspondences, prefixes, affixes, and roots for words borrowed from other languages.
Can spell borrowed words with consistently appropriate spelling patterns, depending on the language.




Home | About CBAL | Acknowledgments | Contact Us

© 2012 Educational Testing Service. The Common Core State Standards © copyright 2010 National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.

All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.