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Proofreading strategies are strategies for correcting a text after it has been produced, by identifying, marking, and then eliminating errors. Proofreader's marks are an example of one form of proofreading strategy, though others, such as circling misspelled words or using a red highlighter, illustrate the same principle. The hypothesized development of these skills is presented in Development Table 46.

Progress in self-monitoring skills is an indirect measure of progress in the Common Core State Standards for Reading Foundational Standard 4 and Language Standard 2.

Literature Note - Proofreading

Development Table 46. Hypothesized Development of Proofreading Skills

Level
Interpretation
Deliberation
Expression
Preliminary
(oral to word)
On examining a marked word, can determine whether it is in fact misspelled.
Marks unconventional spellings in one stage, and determine the correct spelling in a separate step, possibly using a dictionary.
Uses a spell-correcting program in a word processor to suggest possible changes
Recognizes and marks unconventional spelling in a reviewed text.
Foundational
(word to sentence)
On examining a marked text element, can determine whether it is in fact conventionally punctuated and/or capitalized at the phrasal level.
Marks phrase-level punctuation and capitalization in one stage of correction, and determinse the conventional punctuation in a separate step, possibly using a handbook.
Recognizes and marks unconventional phrase-level punctuation and capitalization in a reviewed text.
Basic
(sentence to text)
On examining a marked sentence, can determine whether the punctuation is in fact conventional and acceptable.
Marks sentences in one stage, and determines the conventional punctuation in a second step, possibly using a handbook or grammar correction program.
Recognizes and marks unconventional sentence punctuation in a reviewed text.
Intermediate
(text to context)
On examining a marked text, can determine whether any elements are in fact conventional and grammatical.
Marks grammatical issues in one stage and determines how to edit the text to avoid them in a second step, possibly using a handbook or grammar correction program.
Recognizes and marks unconventional grammar in a reviewed text.
Advanced
(text and context to discourse)
Can compare the original text and the copyedited text (as indicated by printers’ marks) and determine whether the changes are needed.
Marks corrections in one stage using printers’ marks and edits them in a second step, possibly using a resource such as a stylesheet or handbook.
Uses printer’s marks to indicate how a text should be copyedited.



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