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Reading Standard 3: Situation Models
Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

Students who meet this standard are probably applying the following strategy type from the competency model (if the focus is on individuals and events):

If the focus is on ideas, the following strategy type from the competency model is relevant:

Reading Standard 3 treats literary and informational text separately.

Literary Text

These elements are drawn from social aspects of the competency model, in particular, Storytelling, where students define the kinds of reasoning needed to identify how the presentation of information in a literary text helps develop a complex narrative model.

Standards Table R3L. Mapping Reading Standard 3 to the Competency Model for Literary Text

Grade level
Skills
Kindergarten
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote.
1st Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Illustrative Account.
2nd Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Illustrative Account.
3rd Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
These skills correspond to the following element from the competency model:
These skills depend on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Illustrative Account.
4th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Narration, Illustrative Account, Interpretive Account.
5th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Narration, Illustrative Account, Interpretive Account.
6th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.
This skill corresponds to the following elements of the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Narration, Illustrative Account, Interpretive Account.
7th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Narration, Illustrative Account, Interpretive Account.
8th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Narration, Illustrative Account,Interpretive Account.
9th-10th Grades
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Narration, Illustrative Account,Interpretive Account.
11th-12th Grades
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements from the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Description, Anecdote, Narration, Illustrative Account, Interpretive Account.

Informational Text

These elements are drawn from conceptual aspects of the competency model, in particular, Inquiry, and they drive comprehension of text structure fairly directly through the discourse skill, Prediction.

Standards Table R3I. Mapping Reading Standard 3 to the Competency Model for Informational Text

Grade level
Skills
Kindergarten
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account.
1st Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account.
2nd Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report.
3rd Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report, Illustration.
4th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report, Illustration, Explication.
5th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report, Illustration, Explication.
6th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report, Illustration, Explication.
7th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report, Illustration, Comparison, Explication.
8th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following element of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report, Illustration, Comparison, Explication.
9th-10th Grades
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
This skill depends on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report, Illustration, Comparison, Explication.
11th-12th Grades
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
These skills correspond to the following element from the competency model:
These skills depend on the following elements of the competency model:
Characteristic genre types: Recount, Account, Report, Illustration, Comparison, Explication.




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