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Reading Standard 8 - Argumentation:
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

This standard is applicable only to informational text. Students who meet this standard are probably effectively applying the following strategy type from the competency model:

Standards Table R8. Mapping Reading Standard 8 to the Competency Model

Grade level
Skills
Kindergarten
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text (Informational Text).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
  • Reasons and Evidence (Interpretation: Approaching Preliminary; Deliberation: Approaching Preliminary).
1st Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text (Informational Text).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
2nd Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text (Informational Text).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
3rd Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence; Informational Text).
This skill corresponds to the following element from the competency model:
4th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text (Informational Text).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
5th Grade
The following specific grade-level skill is applicable to this standard:
  • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s) (Informational Text).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
6th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims (Informational Text).
  • Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text (History/Social Sciences).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
  • Taking a Position (Interpretation: Approaching Intermediate; Deliberation: Approaching Intermediate).
  • Reasons and Evidence (Interpretation: Approaching Intermediate; Deliberation: Approaching Intermediate).
7th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims (Informational Text).
  • Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text (History/Social Sciences).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
  • Taking a Position (Interpretation: Approaching Intermediate; Deliberation: Approaching Intermediate).
  • Reasons and Evidence (Interpretation: Approaching Intermediate; Deliberation: Approaching Intermediate).
8th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced (Informational Text).
  • Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text (History/Social Sciences).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
  • Taking a Position (Interpretation: Approaching Intermediate; Deliberation: Approaching Intermediate).
  • Reasons and Evidence (Interpretation: Approaching Intermediate; Deliberation: Approaching Intermediate).
9th-10th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning (Informational Text).
  • Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims (History/Social Sciences).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
11th-12th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses; Informational Text).
  • Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information (History/Social Sciences).
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:





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