Home > General Overview of the Competency Model > Modes of Cognitive Representation > The Print Mode

Print processing skills represent text in formal, visual, and orthographic terms. They require knowledge of orthographic/spelling systems, prescriptive grammar rules, and typographical conventions (e.g., punctuation, indentation, directionality of text). Mastery of print processing skills presupposes code-switching abilities, that is, an understanding of the contexts in which standard English is to be used in place of less formal or nonstandard forms of the language.

Viewed interpretively, the print mode is about reading fluency: getting the words off the page. Viewed expressively, the print mode is about fluency in text production: getting words onto the page. Both of these processes depend upon conventions (rules of spelling, punctuation, or grammar), that make it easier to encode and decode text. Deliberation about print elements typically focuses on proofreading—evaluating and correcting textual representations to align them with the orthographic and grammatical conventions of the language. In short, skilled readers and writers have mastered strategies for managing the formal graphic encoding of language.

Print Background Knowledge

Literature Note - Print Mode

Home | About CBAL | Acknowledgments | Contact Us

© 2012 Educational Testing Service. The Common Core State Standards © copyright 2010 National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.

All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.