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Writing Standard 1 - Argumentation:
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

Students who meet this standard are probably effectively applying the following strategy type from the competency model:

However, the standard itself is focused on discourse-level structured expression, more specifically, the particular genre element necessary to frame a case. The characteristic genre types for this skill include the following:

Standards Table W1. Mapping Writing Standard 1 to the Competency Model

Grade level
Skills
Kindergarten
The following specific grade-level skills are applicable to this standard:
  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...).
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
1st Grade
The following specific grade-level skills are applicable to this standard:
  • Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
2nd Grade
The following specific grade-level skills are applicable to this standard:
  • Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
3rd Grade
The following specific grade-level skills are applicable to this standard:
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
  • Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
  • Provide reasons that support the opinion.
  • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
These skills correspond to the following element from the competency model:
4th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
5th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
6th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  • Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
  • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
7th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
.
8th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
9th-10th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
11th-12th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
  • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:






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