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Writing Standard 2 - Informative/Explanatory Text:
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.


Students who meet this standard are probably effectively applying the following CBALTM strategy type from the competency model:


Note that this standard draws on the conceptual strategies for exposition, not just discourse skills).


However, the specific details of this standard focus on one aspect of the CBAL strategy from the competency model (roughly, strategies for organizing an expository text) and less on the accompanying cognitive capacities that underlie the ability to produce this kind of structure. Insofar as this standard focuses on the ability to produce coherent, structured expository prose, it becomes a special case of the CBAL competency of structured expression and is closely related to Writing Anchor Standard Four. The characteristic written modes for this standard include the following:

Standards Table W2. Mapping Writing Standard 2 to the Competency Model

Grade level
Skills
Kindergarten
The following specific grade-level skills are applicable to this standard:
  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
1st Grade
The following specific grade-level skills are applicable to this standard:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
2nd Grade
The following specific grade-level skills are applicable to this standard:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
3rd Grade
The following specific grade-level skills are applicable to this standard:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
  • Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section.
These skills correspond to the following element from the competency model:
4th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
5th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
6th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  • Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension..
  • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  • Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
7th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  • Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
.
8th Grade
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
This skill corresponds to the following elements from the competency model:
9th-10th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:
11th-12th Grades
The specific grade-level skills applicable to this standard include the following:
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
These skills correspond to the following elements from the competency model:





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